OCT 2013

EyeWorld is the official news magazine of the American Society of Cataract & Refractive Surgery.

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Page 46 of 134

44 EW CATARACT October 2013 Preventing continued from page 42 Mah, MD, Scripps Health, La Jolla, Calif. "It's an enormous task." "The paper goes through mountains of methodological information," said Steve A. Arshinoff, MD, lecturer, Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto. However, they note that due to the limited inclusion criteria, the review doesn't add much to the existing available analyses of intracameral antibiotics and endoph- thalmitis. It also points out the limitations of retrospective studies. "This review helps us see the need for more prospective studies in cataract surgery," Dr. Mah said. The review might prompt more American-based clinicians to begin to use intracameral antibiotics, Dr. Arshinoff said. Dr. Mah said through contact with colleagues, he has noticed a small push to more intracameral antibiotic use in the United States. "I think it's slowly moving in Visit us at AAO Booth 1845 that direction," he said. "Still, with the rate of infection so low, I don't think it's something people really look at unless they are having a problem with infections." Dr. Arshinoff added that a review like this one reveals some of the limitations of the Cochrane research-related criteria, which can be so limiting that it does not include other valuable studies in certain subject areas. EW References 1. Gower EW, Lindsley K, Nanji AA, Leyngold I, McDonnell PJ. Perioperative antibiotics for prevention of acute endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews. 2013, Issue 7. Art. No: CD006364. 2. Sobaci G, Tuncer K, Ta A, Ozyurt M, Bayer A, Kutlu U. The effect of intraoperative antibiotics in irrigating solutions on aqueous humor contamination and endophthalmitis after phacoemulsification surgery. European J Ophthalmol. 2003;13:773–778. 3. Barry P, Seal DV, Gettinby G, Lees F, Peterson M, Revie CW, et al. ESCRS study of prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery: Preliminary report of principal results from a European multicenter study. J Cataract Refractive Surg. 2006;32:407–410. Editors' note: Dr. Arshinoff has financial interests with Alcon (Fort Worth, Texas), Abbott Medical Optics (Santa Ana, Calif.), Bausch + Lomb (Rochester, N.Y.), and other ophthalmic companies. Dr. Gower and the other study authors have no financial interests related to their research. Dr. Mah has no financial interests related to this article. Contact information Arshinoff: 416-745-6969, ifix2is@sympatico.ca Gower: 336-716-2184, egower@wakehealth.edu Mah: 858-554-7996, Mah.Francis@scrippshealth.org NIH study shows value of aquaporins by Ellen Stodola EyeWorld Staff Writer A quaporins could play a key role in treatments for cataracts and other conditions, according to a recent National Institutes of Health (NIH) study. Research on aquaporin proteins has "achieved dynamic, atomic-scale views of a protein needed to maintain transparency of the lens in the human eye," according to a press release issued by the agency. This research could play a role in future treatments. The proteins are found in many tissues, the press release explained, however, the aquaporin zero (AQP0) is only found in the mammalian lens at the back of the eye, which focuses light onto the retina. Abnormal development or changes in the mammalian lens can be reasons for cataracts. In addition to age, smoking, diabetes, and genetic factors, mutations in the AQP0 gene can be factors in congenital cataracts and increased risk for age-related cataracts. Researchers noted that understanding the AQP0 channel and how water flows through it is important because of the role it plays in maintaining the transparency of the lens and regulating water volume in the lens fibers. The recent study and research was a collaboration between investigators at the University of California, Irvine, and the Janelia Farm Research Campus in Ashburn, Va., part of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI). James Hall, PhD, and Douglas Tobias, PhD, led the effort at UC Irvine. Tamir Gonen, PhD, led the effort at Janelia Farm. One of the main purposes of the research was to determine the way that calmodulin, a calcium-sensitive protein, helps to regulate the AQP0 channels. It was found that in the presence of calcium, calmodulin binds to one unit and then another, as if grabbing a pair of reins, the press release said. This information and understanding of the way AQP0 channels and calmodulin work can aid in the treatment of cataracts. Although cataracts can be treated with surgery, those involved in the study believe that this new information may eventually lead to preventing or delaying the development of cataracts. "The new findings also provide inroads to understanding how calmodulin interacts with a variety of protein channels, and thus could open doors to new drugs for other common health conditions," the press release said. EW

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